A Joint Event of the SHA, the Paris Observatory and the Astronomical Society of France Continue reading
The Society’s Annual General Meeting was held on the 27th October 2018 at our adopted home, the BMI Birmingham. It was a cold start to the day but nevertheless the event was still well attended with over 75 members and guests arriving to hear the proceedings and speaker line-up of the day. Bob Bower opened the event as Chair, this was his last event in this position as he had decided to stand aside after a number of years in the role. He was instrumental in increasing the membership to its current high levels. Bob was thanked for all his hard work and we will continue to see him at meetings as he is one of the organisers and speakers of the two day Oxford Conference in April 2019. The minutes were approved and the council welcomed the new Chair Gerard Gilligan to his post. Gerard is well known to members as his prior role was membership secretary. The vacant position of membership secretary has been filled by Graham Jones, and we welcome him to the council for the first time. Graham is an experienced astronomer who is also on the council of The Society for Popular Astronomy.
The annual awards were presented as follows; The Roger Jones award for 2018 was awarded to Brian Jones, who unfortunately could not make it on the day, but was being recognised for his fantastic work on the SHA Facebook page, where he posts interesting historical facts on a daily basis. The Madeline Cox award was given by the Bulletin Editors to Graham Mcloughlin for his article on the 1927 Solar Eclipse and all the research that he has done on the subject. Mike Leggett was awarded the Peter Hingley award for all his work on the council and within the society. Mike is a founding member of the society and a long term member of the council. He most recently held the post of Publicity Officer, due to work commitments he has had to step down from the council but will still be a regular attendee of the society’s meetings. Well done all.
Andrew Stephens, the first speaker of the day took us on a journey to our neighbouring galaxy Andromeda. His talk “Observing the Andromeda Galaxy, Dec 1612 to date-a warps and all story!” introduced us to a research project which he has been undertaking since September 2015. It was during the night of the supermoon total eclipse when Andrew observed Andromeda in what he felt were exceptionally transparent conditions. Through binoculars he was surprised to see large, unfamiliar, areas of nebulosity at the galaxy’s extremities. He noticed these areas were off-axis with respect to the major axis of central bulge and at the southern end showed signs of having a three-dimensional structure. Researching these features has proved fascinating, as many excellent observers throughout history make no reference to them. The observations can be explained by reference to professional findings concerning the tidal warping of the galaxy. Although Andromeda is usually reported as visually symmetrical Andrew believes it is not. During the talk he demonstrated warping can easily be seen on any photograph if it is turned so the major axis of the galaxy lies on the horizontal. He finished with a request that anyone finding references to visual observations of the warping, or observing it for themselves, please get in touch, as it will add to his ongoing research. After introducing us all to this riveting mystery I am sure many of us will be observing the galaxy in a whole new way.
Rob Peeling took the floor to guide us on a story through the life of Admiral William Henry Smyth, with a talk entitled “William Henry Smyth, his life, placing his astronomical work in the wider context of his participation in British intellectual life in the 19th Century.” His early life was marred by his father finding himself on the losing side of the American War of Independence. This meant that the family found themselves in a reduced state in the UK and his father’s later return to America to try and reclaim some of the family fortune ended with his tragic death. He would never meet his son, who was born in the UK just months after he died. Smyth at the age of 14 took matters into his own hands and joined the Navy, against his families wishes. His life was adventurous and he travelled to many far off places and was involved in a number of conflicts. Best known for his 1844 book “A Cycle of Celestial Objects”, he was also an excellent self-taught cartographer. Many of his observations were made in his observatory at No 6 The Crescent in Bedford, there is now a Blue Plaque on the property. We thank Rob for this wonderful synopsis on Admiral William Henry Smyth life, he certainly led an exciting life.
After lunch we had a new feature to our proceedings, we held our first short talk hour, this hour was split between three twenty minute talks. We hope this will allow people to present smaller areas of research without feeling the need to have to present for an hour. Bob Bower opened this section of the meeting with a talk entitled “ The artistic skills of Lord Rosse – His hitherto unpublished drawings”. The slides gave us an opportunity to see some of the wonderful sketches that Lord Rosse peppered throughout his notebooks, many which have not been seen before outside of Birr Castle. Lord Rosse’s drawing skills were excellent and his humour abound throughout the sketches. We also got to see images of Bob’s visit to Birr Castle, along with the huge Leviathan telescope, this is a replica telescope which can still be seen by visitors to the castle. After hearing Bob’s wonderful talk I am sure many of us will be inspired to visit this amazing location.
John Chuter and Eddie Carpenter then spoke about “Sir Robert Stawell Ball”. Many of the attendees will have made the link to the BMI and Ball, with the SHA library being called after this foremost communicator of popular astronomy. John began with a brief summary of Sir Robert’s life, and then went on to explain how he had made extensive use of lantern slides. Sir Robert had kept detailed notes of his lectures which included lists of slides he had used. John, as Co-archivist of the BAA had come across the remnants of their once large lantern slide collection they loaned out to members. His research shows that Sir Robert had left his lantern slides to the BAA. The BAA had decided to dismantle the collection in the 1980s. Eddie has purchased a large number of them at that time. There is still a lot of work to do on this, but it is possible that a number of Sir Robert’s slides are still in the BAA’s or Eddie’s collections. Eddie and John have made some educated guesses on which they are. We were then treated to a lantern slide show by Eddie showing possible slides owned by Sir Robert. Over 1 million people saw Ball lecture in his life. He never changed the slides himself, always relying on paid Lanternists to do this, to ensure the smooth running of the show, without the encumbrance of slides being put into the machine upside down or the wrong way around. Ball gave his last lecture around 1910 using lantern slides, maybe some of which we saw today. It is always wonderful to see the old lantern slide machines in action, and we thank John and Eddie for the talk and accompanying presentation.
The following full-length talk was given by Graham Mcloughlin on “The 1927 Solar Eclipse.” This eclipse was on 29th June and had a central line through Lancashire and North Yorkshire. Graham described how it was the first full eclipse in the UK for 203 years and was highly anticipated by astronomers and the general public alike. Graham showed a large amount of material from that year which demonstrated how people would be travelling to the eclipse region. With an eclipse area of just 30 miles width and totality being only seconds, people had to choose their observing location with care. Unfortunately June 1927 was befallen with poor weather, demonstrated with the outfits people wore in the images, many being in overcoats with hats and scarfs. Witnessing totality was a lottery with people located just miles apart being clouded out or under clear skies. Graham brought many photographic slides of the event which gave us a real feel for the excitement of the build-up and the event itself. Thank you Graham for showing us that eclipse chasing is nothing new and giving a wonderful talk about a very interesting event here on UK soil.
After the final break and a last look around the library and book stall, delegates were treated to the exuberant Allan Chapman and his talk “The Wonderful Century; From Atoms to Island Universes. Astronomy in the 20th Century.” Allan is the societies honorary president and is always very supportive, regularly speaking at the October AGM. This year we were treated to a journey through the 20th century. Starting with Sir Norman Lockyer and his discoveries of Helium, we journeyed through the fastest developing period in astronomical history. Allan covered everything from Williams Huggins spectroscopy and how this had opened up new fields at the start of the century, to Albert Einstein’s development of a whole new physics with his work on relativity. We also heard about the work of Henrietta Swan Leavitt and the classification of stars and Edwin Hubble and the realisation that galaxies were redshifting and moving away from each other. We were brought right up to the end of the twentieth century with Allan sharing wonderful stories about his meetings with Patrick Moore and Barnard Lovell. This lecture was a real treat and it was wonderful to hear all about the lives of these trailblasers.
We thank all the members and guests for attending the meeting and hope you enjoyed the day. See you all April 2019 at our Spring Conference in Oxford.
Text: Carolyn Kennet, Andy Stephens, John Chuter
Pictures: Carolyn Kennet , David Sellars
The Society for the History of Astronomy Spring conference was held at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge on the 21st April 2018. A record number of 108 delegates were warmly greeted at the door by the SHA meetings organizer Dennis Osbourne.
Initial introductions and a brief welcoming talk was given by the SHA Vice-Chair David Sellers. He expressed that the talks had a wide range of subject matter from forgotten star atlases, archaeoastronomy, history of astrophotography, and Admiral William Henry Smyth and there should be something which would appeal to everyone in attendance.
The day’s events would start with a trip to the far south west of the UK looking at the Archaeoastronomy of Cornwall. This talk was given in two parts. The first half about West Penwith and the Isles of Scilly was delivered by Carolyn Kennett and the second half about the Hurlers and Bodmin Moor was by Brian Sheen.
Carolyn explained how archaeoastronomy has a real relevance to these areas and there are many monuments ranging from the Neolithic to the Iron age which show evidence for alignments in West Cornwall. There have been several studies conducted within the region, these include work untaken by Edwin Dunkin, Norman Lockyer and most recently Michael Hoskins. The talk gave a quick introduction to the methodology used when looking for alignments and how there is evidence for both solar alignments and lunar alignments in the stone circles in West Penwith. The Isles of Scilly is more complex in nature and although several barrows are known to align with the summer solstice sunrise many do not seem to follow this pattern. Carolyn then moved far further forward in time to the Iron age, explaining how Fogous found in the far south west were aligned to the summer solstice sunrise.
Brian Sheen spoke about the evidence on Bodmin Moor. He has spent many years working at the triple stone circle site The Hurlers. He explained how this is a complex site, although there is a solar aligned circle Cradock Moor within the immediate locality. The circles at the Hurlers has been the focus of a few projects trying to unpick its secrets, these have included a reexamination of the interlinking pathway, the discovery of the single menhir in the position of a possible fourth circle (now defunct idea). All this has enabled a deeper understanding of the archaeoastronomy of the site. More about this work is included in this Bulletin 30.
The following talk by Kevin Kilburn on the John Bevis’ “Uranographia Britannia” the forgotten Star Atlas, was a fascinating tale of a lost masterpiece and how through diligent research, the evidence has been pieced back together of what transpired to the original Atlas and a large number of printed pages. Only three intended Uranographia Britannica are known and these are incomplete. The ambitious project had been financially backed by John Neale, who subsequently became bankrupt. The project was incomplete, and all the printing plates and pages were taken to pay his executors. Apart from the original three Uranographia (known to exist) large number of printed pages were put together to form a near complete Atlas sold in 1786 as Atlas Celeste. A copy of Bevis Atlas Celeste has been discovered by Kevin Kilburn in the Manchester Astronomical Society library. All the other known copies of Bevis Atlases can be seen on the societies website. http://www.manastro.co.uk/bevis.html We thank Kevin for a very interesting talk.
During the break for lunch many delegates took advantage of the warm summer day and were able to eat their lunch on the lawn, Rob Peeling also gave a short talk about his ongoing research into the life of Admiral William Henry Smyth. Rob Peeling had searched through the Hartwell papers held by the Royal Astronomical Society. In a box of correspondence between the Smyths and Dr John Lee, he found a soft covered book of observations which he initially assumed were by Smyth. However, inside the front cover was written, “In a letter to my nephew, J. Herschel”. The date on the front cover was 1783. The observations were the first by Caroline Herschel (the book is actually excerpts from another original journal. This book has not been seen since before 2014 and was feared to be lost. The observations cover the period in which Caroline discovered or independently re-discovered all 14 of the clusters and nebulae attributed to her. Rob showed a number of these discovery records and how they are often accompanied by the phrase, “Messier had it not”. The first page of the book includes Caroline’s instructions from her older brother, William on what he wanted her to record. This is under the heading, “to be wrote down”. Caroline also recorded the conditions she observed under, including the evocative, “ice on tubes”.
Nik Szymanek was the first speaker after the lunch break. He covered the topic of the History of Astrophotography. His talk explored the early forays and successes that historic astrophotography’s such as Henry Draper and Edward Emerson Barnard. In 1959 amateur astrophotography’s started by using black and white film to image the night sky. Nik showed wonderful images taken by amateurs through the ages. Explaining the developments of the technology and how this has improved the results to the current day. He peppered his talk with personal successes and sometimes failures that he had along to way. Astrophotography is Nik’s passion and his deep knowledge in the subject shone throughout this fascinating talk.
The next speaker was Jonathan Maxwell who spoke on “Some Lesser Known Aspects Regarding the Evolution of Refracting Telescopes: Lippershey’s spectacle lenses to the Apochromats”
Around about 1730, Chester Moor Hall invented the first achromatic doublet lens. This was a major turning point in the development of telescopes and a spectacularly successful invention which has been a foundation stone on which all optical instrument industries, not only telescope making industries, have depended on ever since. A lot of interesting lesser known developments happened in the evolution of refracting telescope objectives before Chester Moor Hall, and a lot of similarly interesting things happened afterwards too. The history of some of these developments are not as well understood as we might wish.
Long before Chester Moor Hall, Ibn Sal in 984ad (a Persian scientist working in Baghdad) determined the geometry of refraction in transparent materials (“Snell’s law”) which enabled him to design conic aspheric surfaces to remove spherical aberration in lenses, for the purpose of improving the efficiency of burning using the Sun’s rays. These surfaces became known as Cartesian Ovals, named after the 17th century philosopher Descartes, who promoted them as being his invention.
Thomas Harriot re-discovered Snell’s law in 1602, but probably didn’t know about Cartesian Ovals. Descartes, fairly certainly, got to know about Snell’s law and Cartesian ovals from Snell around about 1621 (this is still debated). Snell was a professor of Mathematics and had studied Arabic texts on optics, and it is possible that he got his law, and the knowledge of Cartesian Ovals from either an original Arabic manuscript of Ibn Sahl, or from a Latin translation of Ibn Sahl’s work. Snell died in 1626.
From about 1630, Descartes propagated the knowledge of “Cartesian” Ovals to savants of astronomical telescope manufacturing, in particularly the use a convex Hyperbolic curve on their objective lenses. But hyperbolic curves were very difficult to grind and polish at that time (and, like all aspheric surfaces, still are), and what is more, from the lens design point of view, a hyperbolic curve introduces massive amounts of Comatic aberration, and of course does not correct Chromatic aberration.
However, in 1660, Christiaan Huygens told Christopher Wren that he had discovered that a combination of a convex and a concave lens could correct spherical aberration, thereby releasing the telescope optics community from the heavy yoke of hyperbolic curves and opening the door for Chester Moor Hall’s invention of the achromatic lens, and possibly opening the door for Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton’s understanding of chromatic aberration correction in lens systems.
At this point in the talk a major controversial topic was introduced: did or did not Newton know that chromatic aberration could be corrected in lens systems? Certainly, Newton publicly proclaimed that Chromatic aberration could not be corrected in lens systems, but, reviewing the literature about this (Newton’s optical work) a strong case emerges for Newton knowing that it could be corrected in lens systems. The speaker showed illustrations from Newton’s works, and one constructed from the words in one of Hooke’s works, showing that both men were close to knowing that chromatic aberration can be corrected in lens systems.
Why did Newton not make this publicly clear? The speaker’s opinion was that It may be that Newton was not quite sure about it in his own mind, or it may be that he didn’t want to admit that Robert Hooke was correct when he said (of Newton’s reflecting telescope) that there was no necessity for reflecting telescopes!
Jonathan then dealt briefly with some interesting but well-known developments in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century to do with liquid lenses (such as had been used by Newton and Hooke) by, notably, Robert Blair and Peter Barlow. He went on to about two neglected heroes of the Victorian era: William Wray who had worked the optics of two major telescopes for James Buckingham (that were the largest aperture refractors in the 1860’s), and an apochromatic lens that used baked resins instead of flint glass. And the Reverend Vernon Harcourt who, from 1834 to 1872 (when he died) worked with George Gabriel Stokes to develop glasses that could correct Secondary Spectrum in telescope objectives. In that work Harcourt tried just about every possible chemical in glass melts. After he died George Gabriel Stokes published a paper explaining Harcourt’s indefatigable work and was then approached through an intermediary to explain Harcourt’s work to a Professor Abbe of Jena…In 1886, the Schott/Zeiss glassworks published their first glass catalogue, based on much of the chemistry that Harcourt had investigated.
Finally, Jonathan talked about a better-known hero of the Victorian era: H. Dennis Taylor of the T. Cooke and Sons company in York, who in 1892/93 published patents for two very different triplet lens systems. These were a Photo-Visual (apochromatic) lens (the first apochromatic telescope objective) deploying some of Schott’s new glasses, and a flat field anastigmatic lens that was advertised for wide field astronomical photography, but which also found a home with the Taylor, Taylor & Hobson Company in Leicester as a general photographic lens.
The afternoon break gave the attendees their final opportunity to look at the book sale that James Dawson, the SHA librarian, had organised. There were many books for sale, all from the field of astronomy, with lots of them about the history of astronomy. This was a well received and great addition to the spring conference.
The last session of the day was filled by Rob Peeling and Bob Marriott. Rob Peeling spoke first about Captain William Henry Smyth. In 1844, Captain William Henry Smyth published the Cycle of Celestial Objects, including the Bedford Catalogue. Smyth’s observing notes for each of the objects are as fresh and relevant today as they were 174 years ago. They remain a valuable companion for those wishing to develop their visual observing skills. However, there is a constraint. Owing to the early date of publication Smyth uses 1840 epoch coordinates together with object designations that are now obsolete. These include designations by William Herschel and from John Herschel’s Slough catalogue and Piazzi’s Palermo star catalogue. It is therefore difficult for a modern observer to check which object is being referred to. Rob Peeling precessed the Smyth’s position data to epoch 2000.0 and using various techniques has identified all 850 objects in the Bedford Catalogue together with any other objects or stars mentioned in Smyth’s note. It is now once again possible to hone one’s observing skills with Admiral Smyth as your companion and guide. The updated Bedford Catalogue can be found on the Webb Society’s website at https://www.webbdeepsky.com/publications/free/.
Bob Marriott then spoke on ‘The Silver-on-Glass Revolution.’ The arrival in the 19th century of glass telescope mirrors coated with silver, was a revolution for amateur astronomers because, almost suddenly, they could make large and small telescopes much more conveniently. Since the invention of the reflecting telescope in the 17th century, mirrors had been made of speculum metal – an alloy of copper and tin that could be polished to produce a reflective surface. Speculum metal is much heavier than glass and tarnishes quickly, and mirrors required frequent re-polishing. The process of production of silver involving silver salts, aldehydes, and sugars was discovered in the early 1830s by the German chemist Justus von Liebig. The silvering process was developed over many years and numerous patents were registered by many researchers, but it was applied primarily for decoration and ornamentation and it was not until the 1850s that a sufficiently fine and stable silver deposit could be produced that was good enough for astronomical purposes. The first telescope with a silver-on-glass mirror was built in France by J. B. L. Foucault in 1857. Two years later, Henry Cooper Key and George With, both of Hereford, made the first silver-on-glass mirrors in England, and in the early 1860s George Calver began commercial production of silvered mirrors. Over many years, With produced about two hundred mirrors, while Calver established a business and produced countless numbers of mirrors and complete telescopes – a business that he maintained for sixty-five years until his death at the age of 93 in 1927. The deposition of silver on glass remained the standard technology for telescope mirrors for seventy years, until the advent of aluminium coatings around 1930.
The SHA would like to thank all the speakers for their informative and extremely enjoyable talks. It was lovely to catch up with lots of familiar faces and also to welcome 3 new members who signed up on the day. We look forward to seeing you all again at the summer picnic on Saturday 30th June at the Seething Observatory, Thwaite St Mary, Norfolk.
Text: Carolyn Kennett, John Chuter, Rob Peeling, Jonathan Maxwell, Bob Marriott
Images from Kevin Kilburn, Laura Carroll and John Chuter
The latest issue of the E-News can be found by clicking on the link below:-
Due to the recent bad weather the Birmingham and Midland Institute will be closed tomorrow (Monday 11th December) and possibly on Tuesday (12th December).
The SHA Library was scheduled to open on Tuesday but given the uncertainty of the weather and the BMI opening, the library will not open.
If anyone wishes to visit the library before the end of the year please contact me.
I’m sorry for the short notice of this.
The Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA
09.30 to 10.00
|REGISTRATION||Refreshments will be available in the lecture theatre|
|10.00||Bob Bower, Chairman, SHA||Welcome to Cambridge
|10.15 to 11.15||Carolyn Kennett and Brian Sheen||Ancient Skies and the Megaliths of Cornwall
|Archaeoastronomy in Cornwall – Past and present|
|11.15 to 12.15||Kevin Kilburn||Forgotten Star Atlas||The 18thC unpublished Uranographia Britannica by Dr John Bevis|
|12.15 to 13.30||LUNCH BREAK||A buffet lunch will be available at the venue|
|13.30 to c14.30||Nik Szymanek||The Road to Modern Astrophotography||The pioneering days of early astrophotographers, up to modern times
|c14.30 to 15.30||Kenelm England||Berkshire Astronomers 5000 BC to AD 2018||Some topics on astronomers and observations made from Berkshire since pre-historic times until last week|
|15.30 to 16.00||AFTERNOON REFRESHMENTS||Tea or coffee and biscuits will be provided|
|16.00 to 17.00||Jonathan Maxwell||Some lesser known aspects regarding the evolution of refracting telescopes: from Lippershey’s spectacle lens to the Apochromats||An insight into the development of the refracting telescope|
|17.00||Bob Bower||CONCLUSIONS & DISPERSAL||
Safe Journey home
The above programme offers an interesting mixed bag that should appeal to all.
Booking in advance, at £10.00 for members, £15.00 for non-members, buffet lunch £5.00
To pre-register please contact Dennis Osborne firstname.lastname@example.org
If you would like to give a talk at the next conference, do please contact me.
The Society for The History of Astronomy’s Annual General Meeting and Autumn Conference was held on Saturday 28th October at the Birmingham and Midland Institute in Birmingham. It was a full packed day with delegates having the opportunity to listen to five talks alongside the AGM. It was to prove a busy meeting with over sixty members attending and eleven guests.
The day commenced with the opportunity to buy books from the bookstall, get refreshments or browse the SHA library which has one of the largest collection of historic astronomy books in the UK.
Bob Bower, Chairperson, started the formal proceedings with his usual vigour and humour, thanking the many members of the society who have helped with the running of the Society during the past year. This hard work has resulted in a large increase in membership for the Society. The Societies’ prizes were awarded, firstly Paul Haley got the Madeline Cox award for his contributions to the Bulletin magazine, Bill Barton was awarded the Roger Jones award for his work on the survey and Gerard Gilligan was given the Peter Hingley award for his significant contribution towards the increase in membership during the past year. The SHA has indeed seen a record breaking influx of new members for the year, which after Saturday is now 50. Well over 200 in total.
The first talk of the day was by Roger Salt, he spoke about “The Antikythera mechanism”. This talk took the audience on a journey of the history of the mechanisms discovery. It considered the early work of Derek Price and later detections by Michael Wright. This fascinating object has had a significant amount of research on it leading to the latest discoveries. These show that the object was an advanced astronomical mechanism which was made by an expert in astronomy from Ancient Greece. Names such as Archimedes, Hipparchus or Posidonius were considered as possible makers of this device. We thank Roger Salt for his talk on what is a fascinating object, which has enthralled the world since its discovery.
Following this talk, we had a short interlude while Eddie Carpenter set up his Lantern Slide projector. Eddie arrived with an excellent array of lantern slides dating back as far as the early 19th century. He started his talk with a crowd-pleasing q and a which asked the members of the audience to identify astronomers and observatories from around the world. The highlight of his talk was him showing the mechanical magic lantern slides which date from 1840’s. An issue with the solar system slide was that it had been produced before the discovery of Neptune. When the outermost planet was discovered in 1846 they quickly painted the planet onto the slide but in the same orbit but on the opposing side to Uranus.
After the break for lunch, Dr Lee MacDonald gave a very interesting and topical talk on the history of the Isaac Newton Telescope. It is a telescope which is celebrating 50 years since it was situated at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex. As Lee explained the telescope has a much longer history as the idea had been formulated in 1944 by the Royal Society. The whole project was beset by delay and disasters, including an inferior mirror which made the scope an f/3 focal ratio. This in time would become the scopes greatest strength. In 1984 the scope was moved to the Canary Islands. The f/3 focal ratio made it an excellent scope for wide angle imaging with CCD cameras, this allowed for large-scale supernovae hunting. It was a project led by Saul Perlmutter on this scope which would discover the presence of dark energy in the Universe. Lee’s topic was called “Cracked Mirror to Nobel Prize” which is a very fitting way to describe the changing fortunes of this once lamentable scope.
Professor Don Kurtz gave a very engaging talk about the meaning of time and how time has been understood, divided up and recognised through history. He took us around the world with different ideas about how time should be measured from different cultures. From the Babylonians early 12-hour day and the Roman 8-day week. We considered questions such as what makes a year? what is an Astronomical unit? and how is it measured? Why do we use a seven-day week? and how the calendar we use currently exists in its current form. Altogether this was a fascinating and thought-provoking talk.
The final talk of the day was from our Societies President Dr Allan Chapman. His talk was about the enigmatic Joseph Norman Lockyer. Born to a well to do family Lockyer at first was a grand amateur astronomer. He soon was commissioning equipment which allowed him to make great discoveries within his own back garden. This was mainly in the field of solar spectrography. This, in turn, allowed him to become one of the leading people in this field at that time. He spent the next part of his life in the academic community within London but later returned to his amateur roots. He set up and ran the Norman Locker Observatory located in Sidmouth in Devon. Allan gave a wonderful talk to end a great day which was enjoyed by all. We wish to thank all the members and guests for coming and hope to see them at the SHA spring conference which is on April 21st 2018 at the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge.